RTI whitepapers are free of charge. To request whitepapers on specific topics, please email email@example.com.
The internet has transformed the world we live in—connecting us in real-time, affecting the way we communicate, learn and grow. Today, the internet has evolved to connect devices, imposing stringent connectivity requirements for the Industrial Internet of Things (IIoT).
The good news? Data Distribution Service (DDS™), an open standard managed by the Object Management Group, specifically address these requirements.
This paper will provide real-time developers and system architects answers to key questions, including:
- What system requirements call for DDS?
- How does DDS enable complex, highly distributed systems to gain significant new capabilities by taking advantage of increased connectivity?
- How exactly does Connext DDS meet these requirements?
A Verocel and RTI Whitepaper
Trends in automotive design are for the ever-increasing use of software, integration of software components at various levels of safety, and regulatory compliance with ISO 26262.
- Get the background on ISO 26262 processes and what parts of the standard apply to COTS software components
- Learn essential characteristics of COTS software that you can use in road vehicle design
- Uncover the documentation and evidence to assist you in achieving ISO 26262 compliance
Intelligent vehicles are complex distributed systems. An autonomous car combines vision, radar, lidar, proximity sensors, GPS, mapping, navigation, planning and control. These components must combine into a reliable, safe and secure system that can analyze complex environments in real time and react to chaotic environments.
So, what's the secret sauce of a successful design? Autonomous car makers need to consider three things:
- Autonomy has a rich technology heritage in other industries, including aviation drones, space robotics and underwater vehicles
- System components of all industry-proven autonomous designs interact through data flow and are able to control that dataflow exactly as needed by each component
- Data-centric connectivity was originally created for autonomous systems because it excels at lifting all of the complexity of data flow interactions from the individual components
Learn about success of data-centric design in the domain of autonomous robotic systems and how data-centric architectures improve flexibility, reduce risk and lower lifecycle costs.
The Industrial Internet of Things offers both the automotive and high-tech industries a unique solution: Data Distribution Service (DDS) protocol. It is widely adopted, open, industry-leading standard for real-time and embedded systems. The paper explains the benefits the DDS standard offers to builders of autonomous car systems.
You will learn:
- What makes DDS an ideal foundation for highly resilient and responsive distributed control systems
- An overview of the real-world applications of DDS across different industry domains
- Why real-time performance, high reliability, open architecture, and publish/subscribe decoupling of DDS accelerate and simplify distributed system development
Have you struggled to effectively apply conventional connectivity solutions to your Industrial Internet of Things (IoT) application? Do you feel like you're re-inventing the wheel every time you have to deal with multiple states as you add new applications? Do you end up creating your own custom application-level protocols? Will your connectivity solution be flexible enough to accommodate future requirements, data types, and staffing changes?
The Industrial IoT introduces new requirements for the velocity, variety, and volume of information exchange. Connectivity must be real-time and secure, and it must work over mobile, disconnected, and intermittent links. It must efficiently scale to handle any number of things, each of which may have its own unique requirements for information exchange, such as streaming updates, state replication, alarms, configuration settings, initialization, and commanded intents. These requirements are above and beyond the requirements commonly handled by conventional connectivity solutions designed for static networks.
This white paper describes a connectivity architecture model for the Industrial IoT and shows how the Data Distribution Service (DDS) messaging standard can address the unique requirements of the Industrial IoT. Concepts will be illustrated using a scalable Industrial IoT application architecture that shares real-time data between mobile devices and the cloud and provides browser-based access from thin clients. The optimal use of web-sockets technology is also described in the architecture overview.
Radar systems must be designed to keep up with a rapidly changing threat environment, adapt to new technologies, and reflect the realities of smaller development budgets. Two different approaches are commonly used to meet these requirements:
- Integrating radar functions into a single standards-based radar system
- Networking simple sensors and systems together
Learn why radar systems developers are adopting standards-based communications technologies as well as open, data-centric architectures to create radar and combat systems that offer greatly improved flexibility, reduced risk, and lower lifecycle costs.
Control systems at the core of critical infrastructure and industrial applications must be protected from espionage and sabotage. This white paper explains how new security extensions to the DDS standard, implemented as plug-ins for authentication, confidentiality and access control, satisfy the demanding security, reliability and performance requirements of these industrial systems.
Exploration and development of unconventional oil and gas resources require new sensors, analytics and processes. The resulting systems need better connectivity, monitoring and control, and process automation. Learn how innovative networking standards and protocols that use open standards and low-cost smart nodes quickly enable revolutionary and reliably integrated system-building approaches that greatly ease field-to-cloud operations for oil and gas applications.
The emergence of smart machines is forming an Industrial Internet of Things (IIoT) that connects devices into truly intelligent distributed systems. The Data Distribution Service (DDS) networking standard helps build full sensor-to-cloud integrated systems that connect operational systems with cloud analytics. This system-wide integration is the key to enabling the IIoT.
System deployment architectures, data models and security approaches can be tightly aligned. Learn how a Secure DDS solution can uniquely introduce fine-grained data security for data in motion. Review the features that make it possible to minimize the leak of information and any subsequent exploitation of data within a system architecture that is more scalable and flexible, and that performs optimally within stringent real-time and deterministic environments.
Certifiable middleware offers a cost-effective alternative to certifying the communications infrastructure of an entire safety-critical system. When examining specific cases of unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs), certifiable middleware has been shown to help save around $2 million. This scenario can realistically translate to other applications, and certification evidence is reusable for long-term value.
RTI Connext DDS (Data Distribution Service) is a powerful tool that lets you efficiently build and integrate complex distributed systems like no other technology – if you use it right. Use DDS best practices to get the most out of DDS and avoid common pitfalls when developing your system. RTI developed Connext DDS best practices over the course of hundreds of customer projects and many years. This whitepaper covers three important types of best practices: architectural, application design and implementation, and network and QoS configuration.
Preventable hospital errors result in the deaths of over 50,000 people every year in the U.S. Many of these errors are due in part to the lack of communication between the many devices dedicated to patient treatment, drug delivery and patient monitoring. Initiatives such as the Integrated Clinical Environment (ICE) and technologies such as DDS can be used to build smart connected systems with the potential to greatly improve patient safety.
The Industrial Internet is an emerging software and communication infrastructure that interconnects machines and data to build intelligent machines and applications never before possible. Using embedded sensors and software, machines connected via the Industrial Internet have the analytical intelligence to self-diagnose and self-correct, so they can operate reliably, react to real-world changes in their environment and provide more sophisticated service to their users. This white paper, written by Douglas Schmidt, Professor of Computer Science at Vanderbilt University, discusses the Industrial Internet in depth, including terminology, history, research, advances and challenges.
Software costs a lot to develop, maintain, market and sell, but the incremental cost of providing this software to an additional customer is very low. Vendors need to cover the entire cost, but users want to pay that low incremental cost. This gap must somehow be bridged. Attempting to charge based on licenses, support or services results in flawed justifications. Charging based on the value of development seats, runtime royalties, or product creates weak rationales. The best solution is to charge a fair, open and simple price based on the investment the customer is making in their project.
For program managers of mission-critical systems, the goal of interoperability through a common, shared infrastructure has become one of paramount importance for mission-critical systems. This should come as no surprise. Interoperability and shared architectures deliver real business benefits across industries. But achieving interoperability is not just a technical challenge; it also requires a new way of thinking about licensing and pricing policies for key system software. This whitepaper explores the business challenges of achieving interoperability and proposes a new Infrastructure Community model that facilitates the development, deployment, and maintenance of fully interoperable systems.
The economic imperative is driving procurement and system integration innovation in the same way that wars tend to drive technology innovation. However technology has advanced sufficiently to create the foundations of a fundamentally new procurement strategy. IOA provides a fundamental shift in defense procurement strategy. It allows government agencies to build high performance, reliable systems that scale while reducing cost and increasing interoperability.
Smart, connected systems are changing many industries. The need for high-performance real-time intelligent systems abounds in defense, industrial automation, medical devices, automotive, and more. The fundamental value driver is easy integration of applications into subsystems, of subsystems into systems, and of systems into larger systems of systems.
RTI's Connext product line provides infrastructure to connect all of these systems. It spans the gap between technologies; it can connect the tiniest of devices to mission-critical real-time computers through to enterprise information systems. It makes many different systems work together as one application.
With the Generic Vehicle Architecture (GVA), the UK MOD has initiated a fundamental shift in perspective regarding collaboration between defense procurement agencies and systems integrators (SIs). Read about the innovative aspects of GVA, IOA and the acquisition approach, as well as the confluence of thinking and events that led to this new engagement model.
Enterprises increasingly need to develop distributed systems in an agile manner, with minimal perturbation to end users and at lower costs. This paper discusses architectural design options and principles to address integration challenges. It includes a comprehensive table for evaluating relevant technologies.
This paper addresses the system design and integration challenges involved in meeting the requirements for coordinated deployment of multiple re-configurable Unmanned Aircraft Systems (UAS).
Integrating Applications over Low Bandwidth, Unreliable and Constrained Networks using RTI Data Distribution Service
RTI has created a number of additional capabilities for its OMG Data Distribution Service (DDS) compliant middleware, specifically to address the challenges of constrained network communication. This paper discusses some sample network types and present solutions using RTI Data Distribution Service.
This whitepaper discusses why integrating modern systems requires a new modular, network-centric approach that relies only on standard APIs and protocols, provides stronger information-management services, and avoids historical problems of integrating complex, heterogeneous systems. The paper focuses on "real-world" systems, that is, systems that interact with the external physical world and must live within the constraints imposed by real-world physics. Examples of these include air-traffic control systems, real-time stock trading, command and control (C2) systems, Unmanned Vehicles, Robotic and Vetronics, and supervisory control and data acquisition (SCADA) systems.
In the modern world, two powerful forces are at absolute odds: system complexity is increasing while budgets are tightening. It seems clear that, in order to manage this state of affairs, we must look for new and different ways to do things rather than just making incremental improvements on the old ways. Data-centric middleware provides that opportunity by enabling a fundamental step forward in efficiency for designing, developing, and deploying next generation, distributed mission-critical systems. Having now been successfully employed on many projects, a data-centric architecture must be seriously considered for any new mission-critical undertaking.
Embedded Market Forecasters, the premier market intelligence and advisory firm for the embedded technology industry, released a report along with survey results that provide a cost-based evaluation framework for embedded developers evaluating the relative merits of developing in-house, or 'Roll Your Own' (RYO), middleware or using a commercial alternative. The study marks the first time that ROI metrics have been developed from comprehensive data derived from an extensive survey of embedded developers. The findings show that middleware selection can have a very significant impact on a project's cost, timeliness, risk and performance.
Reliable one-to-many communication is frequently prone to two serious problems in particular: (1) how to prevent a slow consumer from holding up the rest of the system, and (2) how to prevent massive amounts of negative acknowledgement (NACK) traffic from swamping the network. These problems are related to one another: both deal with the way in which a communications stack (network protocols combined with a middleware on top of them) maintains reliability across a logical network topology with broad fan-out.
This paper discusses how these problems can be lessened or avoided altogether by leveraging the unique capabilities of RTI Data Distribution Service middleware.
(Updated: June 2011) Designing and building an unmanned autonomous vehicle (UAV) is one of the most difficult problems in engineering; and it is particularly challenging from a software systems perspective. By optimizing software performance, scalability, high availability and reliability, security, interoperability, and affordability, system designers can create a UAV that is adaptable to new mission parameters while remaining robust across the product lifecycle.
In this paper we provide a comparative overview of the data distribution service
with respect to high-level architecture. We describe the equivalent terminology
and concepts, and highlight the key similarities and differences in the areas
of declaration management, object management, data distribution management,
ownership management, federation management, and time management.
We explore the architectural mapping between HLA and DDS. We develop an outline for translating from one model to the other, and examine the needed supporting transformations and assumptions. We conclude with remarks and observations on building applications that can utilize both HLA and DDS technologies.
Today's embedded software applications are increasingly distributed; they communicate data between many computing nodes in a networked system. Several network middleware designs have arisen to meet the resulting communications need, including client-server, message passing, and publish-subscribe architectures.
The new Object Management Group (OMG) Data Distribution Service (DDS) standard is the first comprehensive specification available for "publish-subscribe" data-centric designs. This paper helps system architects understand when DDS is the best fit to an application. It first provides an overview of DDS's functionality and compares it to the other available technologies and standards. Then, it examines driving factors, potential use cases, and existing applications. It concludes with general design guidance to help answer the question of when DDS is the best networking solution.